INTRODTJCTOUy ESSAY. 231 racteristie trees. Liquidambar is also common, and parasitical Orchidea and ferns are extremely abundant. A plant closely allied to Raffiesia (Sapria Griffithii}, which was discovered in these mountains by Griffith, is the most remarkable form known to occur there. The upper valley of the Brahmaputra is more open, and is. richly cultivated^ rice being the chief crop, and oranges the most abundant fruit-tree. Higher up, the mountain-slopes are clad with pines of an undetermined species in great abundance. Rhododendro?i ar- boreum is also of frequent occurrence,, and the temperate flora, so far as it is known, closely resembles that of Khasia. The alpine flora is quite unknown; but we learn from Wil- cox, who crossed a pass elevated 12,800 feet above the level of the sea"*, on his journey to the Irawadi, that stunted Rho- dodendrons were common, and that a species of Juniper oc- curred on the crest of the pass, together with Coptis Teeta> a remarkable B/anunculaceous genus, which is not found in the Himalaya. Though so luxuriant and tropical,, the flora of the Mishmi hills below 6000 feet elevation did not yield Griffith a rich harvest,—he did not obtain a thousand species during his re- sidence there. These consisted chiefly of tropical orders, amongst which the following are the most numerous in spe- cies :— Compositae..... 80 Graminese..... 73 Labiatae...... 50 Orehideaj..... 43 Hubiacese..... 42 Acanthaeese..... 38 Leguminosse .... 31 Cyperaceze..... 22 besides 200 Ferns. These numbers are taken from his published journals; but, from our examination of the materials from which they were computed, they must be considerably reduced, especially the Ferns. <* Asiat. Res. xvii 451.